Child diseases - Which childhood diseases are there?

The classic children's diseases such as measles, rubella, mumps, whooping cough, scarlet fever and chickenpox are not so common anymore, but it can always happen that your child is sick anyway. Outsourcing is often the best in that case.

Complications are not common in childhood diseases. If the fever persists or goes high (above 40oC) and / or your child feels really sick, younger than one year, in case of neck stiffness, drowsiness and / or if it gives up heavy cough and mucus, always consult a doctor .

Because many childhood diseases are accompanied by itching, you have to make sure that his hands and nails are clean. This is necessary to try to prevent an infection. You can possibly put your child on gloves or washcloths.
Give your sick child a lot of drinking, especially with fever. If you took care of your child, then your hands immediately.

Child diseases

Here we discuss the most common childhood diseases, the symptoms, the incubation period, infectivity, care and complications that occur.

Mumps

The mumps (Parotitis epidemica) is caused by the mumps virus and occurs especially in children between six and ten years.

Incubation time

Two to three weeks.

Phenomena

The child has no appetite, pain when chewing (similar to ear pain), headaches, abdominal pain and mild fever.
After one to two days, a swelling occurs on one or both sides of the ear salivary gland. The swelling is below and just in front of the ear and extends to the neck. In some cases, the salivary glands can also swell under the tongue and lower jaw.
Pay attention if fever occurs again a few days after the onset of the disease or if the child starts vomiting.

Infectiousness

Moderately contagious from six days before to nine days after the start of the swelling.

Care

Keep the child inside until the swelling has disappeared. Give the child enough to drink (without carbonation) and soft, not eat acidic. Sabbathing on an ice cube or a water ice can relieve the pain. An older child can also be given chewing gum.

Complications

In boys after the onset of puberty and in men, testicular inflammation may occur.
A meningitis can also occur as a complication

Consult GP

If the fever lasts longer than three days, if the child gets a headache or a painful stiff neck, if there is a lot of vomiting and if the child makes a sick impression.

Whooping cough

Whooping cough (Pertussis) is caused by a bacterium.

Incubation time

One to three weeks.

Phenomena

The symptoms can be divided into two stages. In the first stage, a runny nose, coughing and a slight temperature rise are the most important symptoms. The complaints are not yet recognized as pertussis, but the patient is contagious. This stage is officially called the catarrhal stage. One to two weeks after the first stage cough attacks occur especially in the evening. The coughing episodes are accompanied by severe distress, screeching breathing and sometimes vomiting. The attacks occur at short intervals, until they end in the cumbersome coughing of tough white mucus from mouth and nose.
At this stage, officially called the convulsive stage, side effects such as nose bleeding and bleeding can also occur in the conjunctiva of the eye (by pressing during coughing).
The child does not feel sick between the attacks. The symptoms can last five to six weeks, a whooping cough can stay longer.

Infectiousness

From the first cold symptoms to three weeks after the start of the coughing episodes. The contamination takes place through the air through infected droplets (sneezing and coughing).

Care

It is important not to panic during a coughing of the child. Try to reassure the child. Cough drinks do not help in this case.

Complications

Pneumonia can occur as a complication. Infants may suffer brain damage due to a lack of oxygen during prolonged coughing (symptoms: drowsiness, poor drinking, respiratory arrest, convulsions).

Consult GP

For treating any additional respiratory tract infection.

The measles

Measles (Morbilli) is a highly contagious viral disease that spreads through the air.

Incubation time

Eight to fourteen days.

Phenomena

The disease starts with a high fever, painful cough, red eyes and a runny nose. After about two days the temperature drops and then rises again. After that, white spots with a red edge appear on the inside of the cheek (spots of Koplik). Behind the ears and at the hairline there is a rash that has spread over the entire body within a few days. After three to five days, the skin rashes and the temperature drops.

Infectiousness

From the first cold symptoms to five days after the onset of the spots on the body.

Care

Give the child sufficient cold drink and soft food. Leave the child in a dim room. After the healing, the child is temporarily more susceptible.

Complications

Bronchitis, ear, lung and brain inflammation can occur. Therefore, if three days after the start of the spots, you still notice a fever.

Consult GP

If the fever persists for more than a few days or if fever occurs again three days after the outbreak of the blisters.

Rubella

Red-dog (Rubella) is a benign childhood disease that spreads through virus-contaminated air particles. This disease is dangerous for pregnant women who do not have antibodies because they have not been vaccinated or have never had the disease before. Redhound can cause abnormalities in the unborn child.

Incubation time

Two to three weeks.

Phenomena

In general, children are not very ill (mild cold, enlarged lymph nodes behind the ears and in the neck). Sometimes throat and palate are red. Only in a single case is there a fever. After 24 hours the first red spots appear on the face, these spread within a few hours over trunk and limbs. The spots disappear again after a few days.

Infectiousness

From seven days before to seven days after the outbreak of the spots.

Care

As with a bad cold. Make sure your child drinks enough.

Complications

There are rarely complications.

Consult GP

In connection with the risk for pregnant women, it is advisable to let the doctor determine whether it is a red dog.

Scarlet fever

Scarlet fever (Scarlatina) is caused by a bacterium (haemolytic streptococcus) and mainly occurs in infants.

Incubation time

Two to seven days.

Phenomena

Suddenly rapidly rising fever, severe sore throat, painful neck glands, headaches, fits (convulsions), sometimes vomiting and a 'raspberry tongue'. After about two days, rash (red goose bumps) occurs on the trunk, under the armpits and in the groin. It is striking that part of the face, especially around the mouth, does not turn red. Usually the tonsils are inflamed and there are dark red spots on the palate. After one week, the fever drops, the rash pales and the tongue regains its original color. Melt of palms and soles occurs after one to three weeks.

Infectiousness

The disease is not very contagious and can be transmitted up to about two days after the start of antibiotic treatment. Everyone can be infected more than once.

Care

This disease is often treated with antibiotics. Sufficient drinking is necessary. Hygiine is important for parents or carers in connection with contamination.

Complications

Middle ear infection, nasal cavity. After two to three weeks so-called late complications can arise such as kidney inflammation and acute rheumatism. Incidentally, these latter complications are very rare.

Consult GP

For a treatment with antibiotics. You should also consult a doctor if the following symptoms occur after two to three weeks: painful joints, sudden shortness of breath or abnormal urine.

The Fifth Disease

The fifth disease (Erythema infectiosum) is a viral disease that mainly occurs in children aged four to ten years and usually occurs during spring or early summer.

Incubation time

Five to ten days.

Phenomena

The disease starts with bright red bumps on the cheeks. The result then spreads to the buttocks, limbs and trunk. Often fever also occurs. Characteristic is that the redness often pulls away and comes back a few hours later. After about seven to nine days, the spots fade without becoming molten or scarring. In case of exertion, after a hot bath or sunlight, the spots can return.

Infectiousness

Once there is a rash, the disease is no longer contagious.

Care

No special care is required.

Complications

There are no complications.

Consult GP

It is not necessary to consult a doctor.

Chicken-pox

Chickenpox (Varicella) is caused by the varicella-zoster virus, this virus is identical to the virus herpes-zoster (shingles). Chickenpox is a benign disease that, however, can be life-threatening in children with reduced resistance. The disease generally occurs in children between the ages of two and seven.

Incubation time

Two to three weeks.

Phenomena

This disease starts with spots, which change into blisters on the second day. The vesicles dry out after a while. Scabs then appear that fall off without leaving scars.
The blisters occur on the trunk, face and limbs and sometimes some in the mouth. Fever and itching occur, but do not make the child really ill. The vesicles can become infected through scratching.

Infectiousness

This disease is very contagious. Contamination takes place via contaminated air droplets or through direct contact with the vesicles.
From one day before the outbreak of the vesicles until the skin vesicles are dry, the child is contagious. This usually takes ten days.

Care

The itching may be treated with a menthol gel in children older than two years. Keep your child's nails clean and short. Avoid scratching, it aggravates the itching and can cause scarring.
If your child does not have a fever, it may go outside. Avoid contact with other children and do not let your child play in the sand or mud, because chicken pox can be infected by bacteria. If there are spots in the throat and your child has sore throat, then a water ice cream or cold drink can provide relief.

Complications

Inflammation of the vesicles. If chicken pox are accompanied by a high fever and a sore throat, this can also indicate a complication.

Consult GP

In the occurrence of the above complications.

The sixth disease

The sixth disease (Exanthema subitum) is probably caused by a virus and occurs in children from six months to about three years.

Incubation time

About ten days.

Phenomena

Suddenly high fever that lasts three to five days. The temperature drops as suddenly as it has risen. Then the child seems to be healed, but then the first result appears. This rash resembles the measles and the spots are mainly on the trunk and face. Incidentally, the results do not itch. The disease is often accompanied by swollen glands in the neck and on the back of the head.

Infectiousness

Not big. Method of infection unknown.

Care

No special care is required. If the child is better, it can go outside again.

Complications

There are no complications.

Consult GP

With febrile seizures (sudden temperature rises).

Video: Common Childhood Illnesses & Immunizations. HSR Program

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